The Retina is like the film in a camera, and the centre of this is the Macula. Various conditions can affect the Retina, which is made up of several layers, including the layer of optic nerve fibres. If damage occurs to any of the layers, or to the blood supply, the vision or eyesight can be affected. Diabetes, Age-Related Macular Degeneration and Blood Vessel Occlusions (blockages) are some of the conditions which can involve the Retina.


In general, maintaining a healthy lifestyle helps to keep the eye healthy. Avoid smoking, as this is an “oxidant” which causes significant damage over time, both to the retina and to the blood supply. A good diet, with plenty of brightly-coloured vegetables and fruit (5+2), fish two or three times a week, and nuts a few times a week, along with exercise and maintaining a good body weight, will help to supply the eye with anti-oxidants, omega-3 and nutrients to keep the best possible eyesight.


The eye is looked at with a microscope, and further tests such as OCT (Ocular Coherence Tomography), Visual Field Testing, and FFA (Fundus Fluorescein Angiography) may be used to diagnose the cause of the Retinal Disease, and to see whether a suitable treatment is appropriate.


Appropriate treatment options will be recommended by your Specialist. These may include anti-VEGF treatment or laser.

Some conditions may require more than one Specialist to look after the patient, e.g. Diabetes may involve both the Ophthalmologist and the Endocrinologist working as a team.